Flooding Damages and Proper Ways to Control It
Professionals and laymen agree that a flood is a body of water covering land dry under normal circumstances. Floods constitute regular natural calamities. They interfere with lives of millions of people across the globe. Among other effects, they destroy premises, influence soil erosion and contaminate water for drinking. Floods result from many causes among them overflowing lakes, rivers as well as seas. Flooding is as historical as human life. Notably, human beings started by settling along rivers and slowly began to civilize. The reason was simple as human life needs water.
However, it is not always that floods remain destructive in nature. Nutrients deposited by floods every year around River Nile in Egypt by the river made the entire region fertile. This was before the floods along the said river were contained by the construction of Aswan High Dam. Although human life suffers much, floods deposit fertile soil in Bangladesh during the monsoon season. However, they also kill thousands of people in addition to destroying property.
Plain land next to rivers will always flood at least once every year. Heavy rainfall in the sources of rivers makes them carry more water to the mouth. Melting of snow in the mountains where most rivers have sources is another cause for floods. Flash floods are caused by thunderstorms in many ways. In this case, small rivers swell fast forcing them to carry water tenfold their capacity. Usually, those that flow slowly carry silt, sand and water. They erect beds in the process. Beds make the rivers occupy a higher level than the surrounding land. Examples of such rivers are in Chicago.
The rate at which rivers in Phoenix AZ erects develops floods is slow but results devastating. The effect goes to more land. Coastal lands in Fort Myers are not an exceptional to floods. Waves from floor tsunamis raise up to a high of 15 meters. They then flood several miles on the land from the coastline. In the Indian Ocean for instance, a tsunami that was devastating resulted in more than a quarter a million deaths. Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia are some of the countries that felt the effects.
Cyclones, hurricanes as well as tropical storms are other causes of destructive floods. The whole region of Mississippi Delta felt the strength of Hurricane Katrina as it did Chicago. The floods did not spare Fort Myers and Phoenix AZ. Residents of these areas were evacuated by government agencies and other humanitarian organizations to avoid further human fatalities. The dangers of flooding increase in low-lying regions. The Netherlands, whose major part lies below sea level, is an example. Recently, floods almost wiped Haiti out of the world map.
What people do in many ways contributes to floods. No one disputes the role of trees and plants in protecting the world from the effects of excessive water. Water flows through bare land following deforestation. These actions cause mudslides during rainy seasons. Actions of excess water on dams causes cracks. At times, they cause total breakage of the wall. Many methods are developed o take care of the effects of floods. The Netherlands for instance, has constructed dams and dykes to safeguard the land along the coast.